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  3. 學習啦>創業指南>企業管理>企業管理>《最重要的管理方法》正文

    最重要的管理方法

    時間:2015-10-12 15:30:53本文內容及圖片來源于讀者投稿,如有侵權請聯系xuexila888@qq.com 耀聰 我要投稿

      經營與管理既有一致性,又有所區別。從它們的產生過程來看,管理是勞動社會化的產物,而經營則是商品經濟的產物;從它們的應用范圍來看,管理適用于一切組織,而經營則只適用于企業;從它們要達到的目的來看,管理旨在提高組織效率,而經營則以提高經濟效益為目標。

      管理作為一個企業的重要組成部分,管理方法很重要,下面小編給你們介紹最重要的管理方法

      結果管理

      上級把要得到的結果放在管理工作的中心。在目標管理中給定的目標。像目標管理一樣,更多的工作意愿和參與責任。但在結果控制時不一定要評價一個下屬,而可以是一個部門或他所從屬的一個崗位。

      目標管理

      上級給出一個他的下屬要達到的(上級)目標。例如目標為:銷售額提高15%。各個部門的下屬要共同確定達到這目標應該完成的(下級)目標--提高產品銷售。上級則有規律地檢查銷售額變化的情況。 像分權管理和例外管理一樣:提高工作意愿和參與責任。此外,下屬們共同追求要達到的目標,促進了團體精神。

      例外管理

      領導只對例外的情況才親自進行決策。例如一個下屬有權決定6%以下的價格折扣。當一個顧客要求10%的折扣時,就屬于例外情況了:這必須由上司決定。 同樣是提高職工的工作意愿。職工有獨立處理工作的可能--減輕了上司的負擔。這個方法的實際困難在于:什么是“正常”業務,什么是例外?因此經常要檢驗決策范圍。

      分權管理

      分權就是轉交責任,一個上級不是什么決策都自己作,而是將確定的工作委托給他的下級,讓他們有一定的判斷和獨立處理工作的范圍,同時也承擔一部分責任。 提高下級的工作意愿和工作效率。因為參與責任提高了積極性。上級可以從具體工作中解放出來,可以更多投入本身的領導工作。

      漫步管理

      漫步管理的意思是:(尤其是)最高領導不埋頭在辦公室里而盡可能經常地讓下屬看見他--就像“漫步”那樣在企業轉悠。 企業領導從第一手(直接從職工那里)獲知,職工有什么煩惱和企業流程在哪里卡住了。而且,上司親自察看工作和傾聽每個職工的話對職工也是一種激勵。

      參與管理

      下級參與有些問題,尤其是與他本人有關的問題的決策。例如調到另一部門或外面的分支機構任職。當對重要問題有共同發言權時,職工不會感到被“傲慢”地對待了。比如他們可以認識到調職的意義和信任其理由。 這樣做可以提高對企業目標的“認同”。

      對確定的企業流程進行管理。把企業作為一個大系統,這個系統就像一個電流調節系統似地運行。對那些不斷重復的活動有許多規定和指令(例如機器的開和關、更換和維修)。因此這種方法主要用于工業企業。將所有工作過程組織成通暢的流程。許多的規定是為了保證“整個系統的運行”。

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