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  3. 學習啦>學習電腦>電腦入門>《計算機的五大分類》正文

    計算機的五大分類

    時間:2015-10-11 14:47:36本文內容及圖片來源于讀者投稿,如有侵權請聯系xuexila888@qq.com 廣達 我要投稿

      計算機按其功能可分為專用計算機和通用計算機兩類。專用計算機功能單一、適應性差,但在特定的用途下最有效、最經濟、最快速;通用計算機功能齊全、適應性強,但其效率、速度和經濟性相對要低一些,目前所說的計算機都是指通用計算機。下面是學習啦小編為大家整理的電腦的分類,希望大家能夠從中有所收獲!
     

      根據運算速度、輸入/輸出能力、數據存儲量、指令系統的規模和機器價格等因素,可將計算機劃分為以下五大類:

      巨型機(Supercomputer)

      巨型機也稱超級計算機,采用大規模并行處理的體系結構,是運算速度最快、體積最大、價格最昂貴的主機。運算速度每秒鐘可以達到幾十萬億次,字長為64位,主要用于尖端科學研究領域。例如:我國的“銀河”系列計算機就屬于巨型機。

      大型機(Mainframe)

      大型計算機是指運算速度快、處理能力強、存儲容量大、功能完善的計算機。它的軟、硬件規模較大,價格也較高。大型機多采用對稱多處理器結構,有數十個處理器,在系統中起著核心作用,發揮主服務器的作用。

    計算機的五大分類

      小型機(Minicomputer)

      20世紀60年代開始出現一種供部門使用的計算機,它的規模較小、結構簡單、成本較低、操作簡便、維護容易,能滿足部門的要求,可供中小企事業單位使用。例如,美國DEC公司的VAX系列、富士通的K系列,我國生產的“太極”系列計算機等,都屬于小型計算機。近年來,小型計算機逐漸被高性能的服務器取代。

      工作站(Workstation)

      20世紀70年代后期出現了一種新塑的計算機系統一工作站。它配有大屏幕顯示器和大容量存儲器,有較強的網絡通信能力,主要適用于CAD/CAM和辦公自動化等領域,如美國SUN公司的SUN-3、SUN-4。

      個人計算機(Personal Computer)

      個人計算機又稱為個人電腦或微型計算機(Microcomputer)。這類計算機面向個人、家庭、學校等,應用十分廣泛。它由微處理器、半導體存儲器和輸入輸出接口等芯片組成,因此其體積更小、價格更低、通用性更強、可靠性更高、使用更加方便。

      個人計算機的出現,是計算機發展過程中的里程碑,它使計算機的成用與普及成為可能。早期的典型產品有APPLE2和IBM公司生產的IBMPC,而我國的品牌機如聯想、長城等,都是與IBMPC兼容的。

      所謂IBM兼容機,指的是能在IBMPC上使用的硬件和軟件,都能在兼容機上使用,兼容機價格低于原裝機,而性能一般不低于原裝機。目前,我國的微機市場基本以IBM兼容機為主。

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