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  3. 學習啦>在線閱讀>故事大全>故事>《名人的故事:阿拉果的故事》正文

    名人的故事:阿拉果的故事

    時間:2015-10-11 17:56:19本文內容及圖片來源于讀者投稿,如有侵權請聯系xuexila888@qq.com 樂平 我要投稿

      阿拉果非常富于冒險精神,這充分的體現在了他的大地測量工作中。法國大革命勝利后,巴黎很快成為世界的科學技術中心,革命政府向科學家提出的第一個實際要求是統一法國的度量衡。下面我們就看看關于這個名人的故事吧!

      名人的故事 阿拉果的故事

      阿拉果非常富于冒險精神,這充分的體現在了他的大地測量工作中,法國大革命勝利后,巴黎很快成為世界的科學技術中心,革命政府向科學家提出的第一個實際要求是統一法國的度量衡。經拉普拉斯、拉格朗日和拉瓦錫等組成的委員會研究,認為首先要制作一條"世界各國萬古通用"(這句話刻在巴黎國際計量局保存的鉑銥標準米尺上)的標準尺,并確定標準單位米是地球經度圈(即子午圈)的四千萬分之一。由天文學家德朗布爾(Delambre)和梅尚(Mechain)于1792年開始用三角測量法測出從法國敦克爾克到西班牙巴塞羅那南面的福爾門特拉島約9.5 度的弧長,加上在秘魯的測量結果,聯合確定。在工作將完成時,由于梅尚于1804年逝世而終止。

      1806年阿拉果和畢奧受托測完西班牙東北部最危險和艱苦的一段,到1808年測定福爾門特拉島緯度后,畢奧回國,留下阿拉果完成該島和馬略卡、伊薩維三島的三角測量。這時法西戰爭爆發,阿拉果在馬略卡島山上點燃的測量用火堆,被誤認為是引法軍入侵的信號,1808年6月阿拉果被捕并被囚禁在島上的要塞里。7月28日,阿拉果從監獄逃離。8月3日,他冒險潛入阿爾,喬扮成江湖商人,乘船回馬賽。18日船近港口時,阿拉果又被西班牙海盜截回,囚禁3個月后才釋放。坐船再赴馬賽,又被北風吹到阿爾及利亞的布日伊灣。由伊斯蘭阿訇帶路循陸路到阿爾及爾,途中多次遇到獅子騷擾。阿拉果在阿爾及爾住了6個月,才乘船到馬賽,又受到檢疫隔離,在隔離期間,他最先收到了洪堡(Humboldt)的賀信,回巴黎后兩人就住在一起,開始了他們之間長達40年的深醇友誼。

      1818-1819年阿拉果又和畢奧一起在英格蘭和蘇格蘭進行大地測量,對利茲和設德蘭群島進行科學考察。在拿破侖帝國快設落時,阿拉果曾籌劃去美洲新大陸從加拿大考察到智利南端的含恩角,雖然最終沒有能夠實現,但他不怕艱苦勇于冒險的性格,由此可見一斑。

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