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  3. 學習啦>學習方法>初中學習方法>初三學習方法>九年級語文>《提高初中英語閱讀水平的方法》正文

    提高初中英語閱讀水平的方法

    時間:2015-10-12 09:31:53本文內容及圖片來源于讀者投稿,如有侵權請聯系xuexila888@qq.com 淑航 我要投稿

      一個人閱讀能力的高低決定了他能否快速高效地吸收有用信息。初中生要怎樣提高英語的閱讀水平呢?下面是學習啦小編收集整理的提高初中英語閱讀能力的方法以供大家學習。

      如何提高英語閱讀能力:在語言技能中,閱讀能力又是重中之重,培養良好的閱讀習慣,養成按意群閱讀的習慣,養成縱式閱讀的習慣是有效的提高英語閱讀能力的有效措施,閱讀的技巧則有查閱、略讀、預測、猜詞等都能很好提升自己的英語閱讀水平英語教育強調以發展語言運用能力為根本目的,而語言運用能力目標的第一要素就是語言技能。在語言技能中,閱讀能力又是重中之重,它是英語綜合運用能力的基礎和前提。它主要表現在閱讀速度和閱讀理解準確性兩個方面。一個人閱讀能力的高低決定了他能否快速高效地吸收有用信息。

      一、影響閱讀的主要因素

      閱讀理解測試要求高中學生的平均閱讀速度為50~60wpm,而實際上,學生閱讀時往往由于一些不良的習慣而影響其閱讀速度。為了在有限的時間內,提高閱讀速度,鍛煉閱讀技能,我們必須掌握正確的閱讀方法,改掉不良的閱讀習慣。

      (一)學生在閱讀過程中,常見的不良習慣有。1.聲讀(vocalising),即在閱讀時常常讀出聲音來,從而直接影響了閱讀速度;蚴切淖x(sub- vocalising),即是一種除本人外其他人察覺不出來的有聲閱讀形式。心讀時,讀者在心里對自己清晰地發出某個單詞的讀音,好像清楚地聽到自己在念一個詞。2.指讀(Pointing),即在閱讀時,常常用手指或筆尖指著文章逐詞逐句的閱讀;蚴亲g讀(mental translating),即在閱讀過程中,常常將原文逐詞逐句的譯成中文,通過中文來達到理解原文的目的。3.回視(regressions),即在閱讀過程中遇到生詞或不理解的地方時,返回文章的句首或段首重讀。4.濫用詞典(too dependent on dictionaries),即在閱讀過程中不適當的、頻繁的使用詞典,不僅降低了閱讀的速度,而且閱讀效率極低。

    提高初中英語閱讀水平的方法

      (二)影響閱讀的一些因素。1.詞匯量。實踐表明,詞匯量在一定程度上決定了閱讀理解能力。詞匯量對于閱讀速度和閱讀理解有很大的影響。詞匯量越大,閱讀的越廣,視野就越開闊,閱讀理解的準確性就越大。2.句式。句式的識別在閱讀理解中所起的作用是不容忽視的。句式識別,它包括對句子的句法結構的識別和該結構所包含的相關意義的識別。任何普通意義上的閱讀至少都包括句子識別和理解信息兩個階段。句式的自動識別和字詞的自動識別共同構成了閱讀的最佳途徑,即讀而求其意,使讀者流暢地完成句子意義的構建。3.篇章。閱讀時,學生直接面對的是語篇,其組成及其規律對閱讀理解起著至關重要的作用。語篇所涉及的題材廣泛,包括了英語國家的歷史、地理、文化和風俗、風土人情、人際關系等方面的內容,有明顯的時代性和地域性。因此,我們在閱讀時首先要把握語篇的體裁,分析語篇的篇章結構,將詞句融入到語境中,利用合理的推理,以期達到良好的閱讀能力。4.背景知識。背景知識在閱讀中起著至關重要的作用。所謂背景知識指一個人已有的整體知識以及有關某一領域的專門知識。特定的背景知識對理解的影響大于語言知識;背景知識的缺乏會造成閱讀理解障礙。只有當讀者將自己的背景知識與語篇的語言文字信息聯系起來以后,閱讀理解率才能越高。

      二、基本策略

      (一)培養良好的閱讀習慣。有了這些不良的閱讀習慣,要以較快的速度準確的從閱讀材料中獲得有關信息,顯然是不可能的。因此,我們在閱讀過程中須養成良好的閱讀習慣,這對提高閱讀能力至關重要。

      1.養成默讀的習慣,即養成無聲直接理解文字符號的閱讀習慣。

      2.養成按意群閱讀的習慣。學生剛開始閱讀時,往往習慣于逐詞閱讀,或用手指點讀,惟恐遺漏文章內容,這樣所達到的只是句子水平的理解。

      3.養成縱式閱讀的習慣。在縱式閱讀中人的目光主要表現為上下移動,讓學生目光在閱讀材料居中部位縱式移動。同時用余光掃描左右,克服“回視”現象,并要求學生按意群向前跳躍,捕捉關鍵詞,抓住中心思想。

      4.養成“悟意”的閱讀習慣。根據文章的上下文的或語言結構分析,來猜測并確定生詞詞義,不是一遇到生詞就去查字典。只有這樣,閱讀速度才能加快,理解的準確率才會提高,閱讀技能才能增強。

      (二)閱讀的一些技巧及策略。

      快速閱讀技能主要包括以下幾方面:

      1.查閱(Scanning)查閱的目的是為了快速查找某一特定信息。閱讀課文時,對具體數字、日期、人名和地名等的查閱是訓練“查閱”技巧的最佳時機。特別是當回答有關who,what,where,when, why 等文章的細節問題時,用此方法可以提高閱讀速度和解題的準確性。在查閱的過程中,應該注意的是應明確所查的對象;查閱前應清楚此信息可能以哪種形式出現。

      2.略讀(Skimming)略讀的目的是為了迅速抓住文章大意和主題思想。一般來說略讀的速度是正常閱讀速度的兩倍。在閱讀的過程中,我們要快速瀏覽全文,領會文章大意,發現作者的觀點和意圖,掌握篇章結構進而抓住文中的Central idea 。尤其注意首尾兩段和首尾兩句。

      3.預測(Prediction)預測作為一種思維活動,是指對未來的發展情況進行積極的推測。在閱讀過程中,根據上文中已出現的語言信息,預測下文將要出現的信息,這是我們應該了解和掌握的一項快速閱讀技能。從標題預測文章的大致內容以及可能涉及到的詞匯,然后閱讀開篇第一、第二段,以驗證或糾正對文章的預測。

      4.猜詞(Guessing)我們在大量的閱讀過程中必定會遇到一些生詞,而如何處理這些生詞是一個不可忽視的問題。如果一遇到生詞就停下來查字典,那么,不僅會影響閱讀的速度,還會挫傷閱讀的積極性。所以我們必須掌握一些猜詞技巧。一般可以從上下文的同義詞、反義詞獲知詞義;也可以從語境中猜出詞義,還可以根據詞的結構和構詞法常識(如詞干、詞根、前綴、后綴)等來判別詞義。

      總之,閱讀是一個多因素作用過程。學生的閱讀能力的培養,是個漸進的復雜過程。我們應培養學生濃厚的閱讀興趣,正確把握閱讀技巧,使其擁有詞語的猜讀能力、難句解讀能力、信息把握能力、分析推理等能力,從而形成良好的閱讀習慣,學生的閱讀能力最終定會逐步提高。

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