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  3. 學習啦>學習方法>小學學習方法>小考輔導>《提高小學計算能力的技巧》正文

    提高小學計算能力的技巧

    時間:2015-10-11 13:44:13本文內容及圖片來源于讀者投稿,如有侵權請聯系xuexila888@qq.com 淑航 我要投稿

      在小學學習中,掌握簡便計算的方法,是提高計算速度和計算正確率的重要途徑。下面是學習啦小編帶來的提高計算能力的技巧。

      一、牢固掌握基礎知識

      小學數學中的計算,都是依據相應的概念、法則、性質、定律等基礎知識進行的,幫助學生牢固掌握并靈活運用這些知識是提高計算能力的前提。學生要加強這些知識的理解與識記。

      二、加強口算訓練

      口算基礎好,可以減少筆算的困難。所以抓好口算訓練是學好計算的前提。20以內的加減要反復訓練,達到脫口而出;100以內的加減法,一位數乘兩位數的乘法,一位數除兩位數的除法等,也要達到熟練。這些都是四則計算的基礎。

      在理解的基礎上熟記一些常用的數據,這不僅可以達到計算正確、提高計算速度,而且對小學生今后的學習及生活受益無窮。

      1、和、積為整百、整千的特殊數據。

      如:25×4,125×8等

      2、1~20的平方數、1~10的立方數。

      3、1π~9π這些值的記憶。

      4、常見的分數、小數、百分數的互化。

      5、有關“0”“1”的計算特征。

    提高小學計算能力的技巧

      三、重視簡便運算

      掌握簡便計算的方法,是提高計算速度和計算正確率的重要途徑。運用法則、定律進行簡便運算,可培養學生思維的簡捷性和敏捷性,提高運算速度和準確性,使復雜的計算變得簡單,做到:變難為易,變繁為簡,變慢為快。

      簡便運算的基礎是一些數學運算性質及運算定律。學生要靈活運用加法、乘法的交換律與結合律、乘法分配律,減法的性質、除法的性質、商不變的性質、比的性質等。

      1、要善于觀察每題的數字特點和運算符號,通過思考,合理運用所學的運算定律,能用簡便算法的一定要運用簡便算法。

      對不能直接簡算的還要看可否通過分、合、轉換、省略等方法使運算簡便。如125×25×32,要求用(125×8)(25×4)的方法來簡算,375-183-117要根據減法的性質進行簡算,即:375-183-117=375-(183+117)。

      2、平時要多注意收集、總結、積累一些解題的計算方法與技巧。

      如:“湊整法”、“減法運算性質”、“商不變規律”、“運算定律”“分解法”、“裂項抵消法”等方法。當然,為了提高學生計算速度,還應該熟記一些常用的數據:如1~20個自然數的平方;分母是2、4、5、8、10、16、20、25的最簡分數的小數值;圓周率近似值3.14與一位數各自的乘積等這樣就會更好、更快、更準確的提高計算的效果。

      所以,要培養、提升簡便運算的意識,提高靈活、合理計算的能力。要提倡計算多樣性,善于選優而從。不但能正確地進行計算,而且要能合理靈活地進行巧算,才能省時、省力、提高計算的速度,提高計算的質量。要培養審題、分析的習慣。先要觀察題目的特征,認真審題,選擇合理的計算方法。提出“兩看,兩想,再計算”的程序,即:先看一看整個算式由幾個部分組成,想一想一般方法如何計算,再看一看有沒有某些特殊條件,想一想能不能用簡便方法計算。

      比如“湊整法”就是利用“和、差、積、商”的變化規律把已知數轉化為整十、整百、整千等的數。湊整法的目的是通過改變運算順序或改變運算數據等來達到簡便運算的目的。如:345+101=345+(100+1)、21×9.9=21×(10-0.1)等。

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